In order to get a better overview of the consent/disagreement categories, we assessed, for each point, how many times children and parents chose the same response category (“child = parent”), how many times the parent chose a response category with a higher score than the child (“parent > child”) and how often the child chose a response category with a higher score than the parent (“subordinate parent >”). The different distributions of these categories are shown in Figure 1. Available data compared parental and self-reports in the areas of health behaviours (diet, media use, physical activity, sleep), mental/physical health (behavioural levels and difficulties, psychosomatic disorders) and academic performance (school grades). The questionnaires and the resulting variables are described below: This study examined the (non-) concordance between child and parent ratios in a large German cohort study. The strengths of the study are the sample size, range and diversity of behaviours and health outcomes studied. However, certain restrictions should be recognised. One restriction is that different behaviours/characteristics/indicators were assessed in different samples of children and over different time periods (with only partial overlap). Since we do not have an objective measure of the real and “true” behavior of children, the study does not determine whether the child`s or parents` relationships are closer to the truth. Regarding the gender of the parents (mothers vs. It is important to consider the over-representation of mothers in the sample.
Finally, we were unable to review the reports completed by both parents and a child from the same family. Future studies could include objective measures as a baseline and compare the ratios of mothers and fathers for the same child. A larger sample would also make it possible to study the impact of childhood by involving younger and older children and adolescents. Translated versions of the study information and questionnaires were provided in three languages, often spoken by migrants in Sweden: Arabic, Somali and English. Parents who were unable to complete the SDQ in Swedish or one of the languages mentioned were excluded from the study. The number of informants ranged from one to three, as parents were free to decide whether both parents and/or the kindergarten should take the SDQ. The data were collected between 2011 and 2019 as part of the LIFE study on children (Germany). Several subgroups of children aged 10 to 12 years and their parents (n (max) = 692 completed questionnaires on different health behaviours (diet, media use, physical activity, sleep), health parameters (strength and behavioural difficulties, psychosomatic disorders) and school grades. The concordance between subordinate and higher ratios was assessed on the basis of Kappa weighted coefficients. In addition, the frequencies of different types of (non-) matches (parent report > children`s report, same response, children`s report > parent report) were assessed and associations with the sex of the child or parents were checked. The frequency of the “child = parent” category ranged from 14.16% (for hyperactivity/inattention) to 86.17% (for math grades). .